The triad PTSD, TBI, and pain are seen often enough by clinicians working with accident victims.
As a springboard from yesterday’s Division on Addictions Fall Conference, and segue to a presentation I’ll be making on November 22 with co-presenter Jax Gallios at the Latino Psychological Association of New Jersey, I thought to bring up another trimorbid cluster: TBI, PTSD, and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). And to the extent that prescribed and illicit drugs and alcohol are overused to help cope with pain (may become addictive), you have:
PTSD + TBI + SUD + Pain
For a very interesting review of the literature and discussion of assessment and treatment, see Chapter 7, Substance Use Disorder, Lisa M. Najavits, Jennifer Highley, Sara L. Dolan, & Frank A. Dee, in PTSD and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Jennifer J. Vasterling, Richard A. Bryant, & Terence M. Keane Eds., The Guilford Press, 2012.